|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 82-84
Sequential Fracture of Neck of Femur of Both Sides in a Patient with Psychosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma
Dhananjaya Sabat1, Prerna Kukreti2
1 Department of Orthopedics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||17-Mar-2021|
|Date of Decision||21-May-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||19-Nov-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||29-Apr-2022|
Department of Orthopedics, Room no 610, Department of Orthopedics, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi 110002
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The authors describe the case of an adult male patient with psychosis developed fractures of neck femur of both sides sequentially at a year interval following trivial trauma. In addition, the patient was found to have hyperthyroidism. The rare presentation, possible complex etiopathogenesis for the problem and difficulties in treatment are discussed.
|How to cite this article:|
Sabat D, Kukreti P. Sequential Fracture of Neck of Femur of Both Sides in a Patient with Psychosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma. MAMC J Med Sci 2022;8:82-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Sabat D, Kukreti P. Sequential Fracture of Neck of Femur of Both Sides in a Patient with Psychosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma. MAMC J Med Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 24];8:82-4. Available from: https://www.mamcjms.in/text.asp?2022/8/1/82/344351
| Introduction|| |
Metabolic bone-disease-associated fractures have varied presentation. The present case describes an adult male patient with psychosis who had sequential fractures of neck of femur at 1 year interval later on found to have associated hyperthyroidism. Such presentation is not reported till date in literature.
| Case Report|| |
A 37-year-old male presented to the emergency department with history of fall from stairs and injury to the left hip. Radiographs of the left hip showed a transcervical fracture of the neck of femur. The pulse rate was 82 per minute and blood pressure 134/84 mmHg. The patient had hemoglobin of 12.4 g%, a normal renal function test, and electrocardiograph. It was noted that the patient had fractured his right neck of femur 12 months back after a fall from bicycle and underwent a closed reduction and internal fixation with three 7-mm cannulated cancellous screws which got united in mild varus.
He was posted under anesthesia and the fracture fixation was carried out with three 7-mm cannulated cancellous screws after achieving a closed reduction. The immediate postoperative period was uneventful.
The rare presentation of sequential fracture of neck femur in an adult male aroused suspicion of some associated disorder which may have contributed to his fractures occurring with low energy trauma. On detailed history, the patient was under treatment for psychotic episodes since last 3 years from psychiatric department of a tertiary care hospital and was on the following drugs: tablet Risperidone 2 mg at night, tablet Trihexyphenidyl 2 mg in the morning, and tablet Clonazepam 0.5 mg at night. The reports of the previous treatment revealed that in the initial treatment, he had received tablet Risperidone 6 mg at night, tablet Amisulpride 100 mg BD, tablet Fluoxetine 20 mg in the morning for first 2 years. His wife informed that patient lost weight rapidly over the last 3 years though had increased appetite; and his psychotic behavior was under control with treatment.
Detailed clinical evaluation also revealed a fine tremor in hands and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Further investigations revealed a serum calcium level of 7.90 g/dL (normal: 8.2–10.4 g/dL) by indirect (ISE) method, serum phosphate level of 2.70 mg/dL (normal: 2.5–4.6 mg/dL) by phosphomolybdate method, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level of 542.00 IU/L (normal: 39–117 IU/L) and serum parathyroid hormone level 303.300 pg/mL (normal: 12–72 pg/mL) suggestive of osteomalacia. Thyroid profile was free T3: 10.99, free T4: 6.289 ng/dL (normal: 0.950–2.250 ng/dL) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.004 μIU/mL (normal: 0.200–5.100 μIU/mL), suggesting a hyperthyroid state. Ultrasonogrphy of thyroid with 14 mHz linear probe showed size of right lobe 1.9 × 2.2 cm and left lobe 2.3 × 1.7 mm, with peak systolic velocity in right inferior thyroid artery 54 cm/second and left inferior thyroid artery 51 cm/second suggestive of Graves disease. A 5-mCi 99mTc pertechnetate scan of thyroid showed overall increased intake with mildly enlarged both lobes with homogenous distribution of tracer. There was no hot or cold nodule or retrosternal extension or pyramidal lobe. In 20-minute 99mTc pertechnetate scan also showed increase uptake to total 34.2% (right lobe: 18.2%; left lobe: 16.0%; normal: 0.2–3%).
With the diagnosis of Graves disease and osteomalacia, antithyroid treatment was started with tablet Carbimazole 10 mg 2/2/2, tablet Propranolol 40 mg 1/1/1 along with tablet Cholecalciferol 60000 IU, 1 tablet weekly a total of 10 tablets and calcium supplementation 1000 mg/day. Antipsychotic treatment was tapered off. The patient improved clinically and TSH value gradually improved. But the left fracture neck femur started showing signs of delayed union with progressive varus in alignment of neck femur in spite of limited nonweight-bearing ambulation [Figure 1].
|Figure 1 Anteroposterior view of pelvis and both hips at 5 months posttreatment showing a united fracture of right neck femur with ununited fracture of left neck femur with varus collapse.|
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At 5 months follow-up; patient was off antipsychotics. His calcium, phosphate, and ALP levels as well as thyroid profile were normal with medications. He was advised a valgus osteotomy for his ununited fracture of neck femur on left hip which patient refused. Patient continued to remain a household ambulator with a stick and did not opt for further surgical intervention till last follow-up of 16 months [Figure 2].
|Figure 2 Anteroposterior view of left hip showing persistence of ununited fracture of left neck femur with varus collapse.|
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| Discussion|| |
Metabolic bone disease has variable presentations and association of endocrinopathy is common. Making the diagnosis is difficult when the definitive clinical signs are not clear. On the other hand, drug-induced derangements in metabolism of bone can further complicate the evaluation of the disease and thus formulating a single hypothesis for the cause and effect in such cases is not always possible.
In this case, the association of sequential fractures of both sides neck of femur can be attributed to variety of factors. Firstly, hyperthyroidism can itself affect bone metabolism. One of the first reports of hyperthyroid bone disease was in 1891 when von Recklinghausen described the “worm eaten” appearance of the long bones of a young woman who died from hyperthyroidism. Overt hyperthyroidism is associated with accelerated bone remodeling, reduced bone density, osteoporosis, and an increase in fracture rate., These changes in bone metabolism are associated with negative calcium balance, hypercalciuria, and, rarely, hypercalcemia.,, Bone density measurements have demonstrated that bone loss is common in patients with overt hyperthyroidism and to a lesser extent in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The extent of reduction in bone density in patients with hyperthyroid ranges from 10% to 20%.,, Also osteomalacia is known to be associated with thyrotoxicosis. In hyperthyroidism, subclinical vitamin D deficiency may get precipitated into an overt form. Osteomalacia may coexist with thyrotoxicosis, but may remain undiagnosed, unless clinically suspected and biochemically confirmed. Despite the variable bone density findings, a history of overt hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for hip fracture later in life., The mechanism by which these happen is unclear. Possible mechanisms include direct stimulation of osteoclastic activity or indirect stimulation through increased osteoblastic activity by T3 or TSH or interleukin-6. In overt hyperthyroidism, osteoclastic resorption is stimulated out of proportion to osteoblastic remineralization. At result, the normal cycle duration of approximately 200 days is halved, and each cycle is associated with a 9.6% loss of mineralized bone.
Secondly, psychosis and depression can be the cause even the first presentation of hyperthyroidism. Clinical case reports reveal that hyperthyroid individuals may manifest psychosis and depression. The prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism in psychiatric patients ranges from 0.5% to 8%.,,,,
Thirdly, long-term use of psychotropic medications may be associated with adverse effects on bone metabolism. Risperidone is known to increase prolactin levels, which in turn suppresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone release leading to impaired gonadal steroidogenesis in men and women. Long-term hyperprolactinemia may lead to decrease bone mineral density in both sexes.,, Patients with psychiatric disorders frequently have other predisposing factors for osteoporosis, such as poor nutrition, history of smoking, low activity level, and amenorrhea.
The possible etiopathology of the fractures in this case can be a combined deleterious effect of all the mechanisms described earlier. Whether the effects are additive or multiplicative, that remains a matter of further research. But it can be safely concluded that adequate calcium (at least 1500 mg/day) and vitamin D (400–800 IU/day) supplementation must be given to patients of hyperthyroidism and patients on antipsychotic drugs. In addition, periodic screening with DEXA scans may also be recommended.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]