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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 149-155

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis and Its Association with HIV in Patients Hospitalized in a Tertiary Care Center: A Cross-Sectional Study

Department of General Medicine, St Johns Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Soumya Umesh
Associate professor, Department of General Medicine, St Johns Medical College Hospital, Sarjapur Road, Bengaluru 560034
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mamcjms.mamcjms_67_20

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Context: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) presentation can be unusual, and the diagnosis may often be challenging when associated with HIV. Aims: This study was conducted to find out the pattern of newly diagnosed EPTB in hospitalized patients, the diagnostic modalities used to arrive at the diagnosis, frequency of HIV positivity among them, and its association with CD4 counts. Settings and Design: All patients newly diagnosed to have EPTB admitted in a tertiary care medical college hospital in various departments over 1 year were included. Methods and Materials: Clinical presentation, comorbidities, and investigations done to arrive at diagnosis of EPTB were recorded. They were classified based on the affected site. HIV was tested for all patients, and CD4 counts in positive patients. Results: A total of 230 patients were newly diagnosed to have EPTB. The median age was 35 years (IQR 29–45), and the proportion of males was 127 (55%). Imaging was used alone in 47 (20%) patients and in combination with cytology or biopsy in 133 (57.8%) patients to establish the diagnosis. Pleural effusion, 50 (21.7%) patients, peripheral lymph node TB (LNTB), 44 (19.1%) patients, and CNS TB, 37 (16.1%) patients, were the most common forms. HIV was associated in 61 (26.5%) patients and diabetes in 27 (11.5%) patients. Both diseases influenced the presentation of EPTB. There was an association between HIV positivity and type of EPTB with peripheral LNTB being the most common in HIV patients. High CD4 counts were associated with pleural effusion and low counts with disseminated forms. Statistical Analysis Used: chi-square, ANOVA, and Student t test. Conclusion: The pattern of EPTB changes with HIV and vigilance is required to detect severe and disseminated forms of EPTB with lower CD4 counts.

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